Pubblications and Essentials on the  Mitochondrial derived ATP synthesis

The present “essentials” address a crucial topic in bioenergetics and neurobiology. It also goes against many accredited paradigms. We have emphasized the anomalies that rise from the application of the old paradigms. On the other hand, this topic is based on a number of experiments grounded on rigorous biochemical methodologies. Up to now, the International Scientific Community has ignored our burdensome work, sometimes expressing a strong opposition based on prejudices. We wish that other laboratories would reproduce our experiments and apply the new paradigms. This may lead to more convincing views on many biology topics.


1) Energetics of Phototransduction and finding of an extra-mitochondrial ATP synthesis

Pioneering research by Caretta & Cavaggioni who used the luciferin-luciferase method 25 years in advance of its worldwide dissemination of the luciferin luciferase method observed a considerable ATP consumption in individual photoreceptors. Important because it highlighted the high consumption of ATP by rods.


2) Pioneering research not ours


1976 –J Physiol. 1976;  257(3):687-97. PMID: 781215.

On the metabolism of the rod outer segments. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.1976.sp011392

Carretta A, Cavaggioni A.


1985 – A milestone in the understanding of the molecular events of visual transduction: Fesenko EE, Kolesnikov SS, Lubarsky AL discovered by that the cyclic GMP present in the external segment of the photoreceptors is quantitatively hydrolyzed to 5’-GMP following illumination:

Nature. 1985;313(6000):310-3.

Induction by cyclic GMP of cationic conductance in plasma membrane of retinal rod outer segment.

Fesenko EE, Kolesnikov SS, Lubarsky AL

Institute of Biological Physics, USSR Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow, USSR

The hydrolysis of the cyclic GMP following steady illumination is total, therefore a large amount of energy (ATP) for the subsequent resynthesis of the cyclic GMP is required.


3) Research on the extramitochondrial OXPHOS in Rod Outer Segments, exosomes, microvesicles, platelets and cancer cell.


2000 –Biochemistry Laboratory, Genoa: investigating a possible synthesis of ATP by the reversal of the calcium pump.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;268:625-7.

ATP synthesis in rod outer segments of bovine retina by the reversal of the disk Ca(2+) pump.

Pepe IM, Panfoli I, Notari L, Morelli A.


2008 – Rod outer segments, virtually free of mitochondria, are found to be stained by conventional mitochondrial dyes.

J Biomed Opt. 2008;13:054017.

Live imaging of mammalian retina: rod outer segments are stained by conventional

mitochondrial dyes.

Bianchini P(1), Calzia D, Ravera S, Candiano G, Bachi A, Morelli A, Bruschi M,

Pepe IM, Diaspro A, Panfoli I.

This investigation prompted Isabella Panfoli to perform a proteomic analysis of the rod disks to investigate possible new proteins present in them.


2008 – Rod disk proteomics unexpectedly revealed a high presence of typical mitochondrial proteins:

J Proteome Res. 2008 ;7(7):2654-69.

Proteomic analysis of the retinal rod outer segment disks.

Panfoli I(1), Musante L, Bachi A, Ravera S, Calzia D, Cattaneo A, Bruschi M,

Bianchini P, Diaspro A, Morelli A, Pepe IM, Tacchetti C, Candiano G.

“…This study represents a step toward a global physiological characterization of the disk proteome and provides information necessary for future studies on energy supply for phototransduction.”.


2009 – Accurate functional measurements demonstrated that the rod outer segments (ROS) are the site of an oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) with active ATP synthesis:

Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41:2555-65.

Evidence for aerobic metabolism in retinal rod outer segment disks.

Panfoli I, Calzia D, Bianchini P, Ravera S, Diaspro A, Candiano G, Bachi A,

Monticone M, Aluigi MG, Barabino S, Calabria G, Rolando M, Tacchetti C, Morelli

A, Pepe IM.

“…ATP synthesis by disks (700 nanomol ATP/min/mg prot.), sensitive to the common

mitochondrial ATP synthase inhibitors, would largely account for the rod ATP need

in the light.”

This figure is relevant as it illustrates the extent of the phenomenon. In fact, mitochondria produce very little ATP, it in an amount not exceeding 15 nanomol ATP / min / mg prot. That is, rod outer segments produce ATP through OXPHOS with a speed of 700: 15 = ~ 50 times faster than that of mitochondria. The relevant figure is therefore quantitative.


Intense research followed on the energetics of phototransduction, in exosomes and in platelets, reported in paragraph 3). The following paragraph 2) takes into consideration the essential steps that led to the discovery of an active OXPHOS in myelin.


2011 - Ravera S, Aluigi MG, Calzia D, Ramoino P, Morelli A, Panfoli I.

Evidence for ectopic aerobic ATP production on C6 glioma cell plasma membrane.

Cell Mol Neurobiol.    31(2):313-21. doi: 10.1007/s10571-010-9624-7.   PMID: 21082238.


2011 - Panfoli, I., Calzia, D., Ravera, S., Bruschi, M., Tacchetti, C., Candiani, S., Morelli, A. & Candiano, G.

Extramitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle in retinal rod outer segments,

Biochimie.93, 1565-75. - [ PMID: 21683117 ]


2012 - Panfoli, I., Calzia, D., Ravera, S., Morelli, A.M., Traverso, C.E.

Extramitochondrial aerobic metabolism in retinal Rod Outer Segments: new perspectives in retinopathies, Medical Hypotheses, Article in press. Doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2011.12.012


2013 - Calzia D, Candiani S, Garbarino G, Caicci F, Ravera S, Bruschi M, Manni L, Morelli A, Traverso CE, Candiano G, Tacchetti C, Panfoli I.

Are rod outer segment ATP-ase and ATP-synthase activity expression of the same protein? Cell Mol Neurobiol. 33, 637-49. doi: 10.1007/s10571-013-9926-7 - [ PMID: 23568658 ]


2013 - Calzia D, Barabino S, Bianchini P, Garbarino G, Oneto M, Caicci F, Diaspro A, Tacchetti C, Manni L, Candiani S, Ravera S, Morelli A, Traverso C, Panfoli I.

New findings in ATP supply in rod outer segments: insights for retinopathies, Biol Cell. 105, 345-58. doi: 10.1111/boc.201300003 - [ PMID: 23659850 ]

2015 - Bruschi, M., Ravera, S., Santucci, L., Candiano, G., Bartolucci, M., Calzia, D., Lavarello, C., Inglese, E., Petretto, A., Ghiggeri, G.,  Panfoli, I.

The human urinary exosome as a potential metabolic effector cargo Expert Review of Proteomics, 12 (4), 425-432. DOI: 10.1586/14789450.2015.1055324.

2016 - Bruschi M, Santucci L, Ravera S, Candiano G, Bartolucci M, Calzia D, Lavarello C, Inglese E, Ramenghi LA, Petretto A, Ghiggeri GM, Panfoli I.

Human urinary exosome proteome unveils its aerobic respiratory ability. J Proteomics.;136:25-34. doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2016.02.001. Epub 2016 Feb 2. PMID: 26850698.

2016 - Panfoli, I.

Exosomes as "translational" cancer promoter organelles. Translational Cancer Research, 5, S205-S207. DOI: 10.21037/tcr.2016.08.08.


2016 - Panfoli, I., Ravera, S., Podestà, M., Cossu, C., Santucci, L., Bartolucci, M., Bruschi, M., Calzia, D., Sabatini, F., Bruschettini, M., Ramenghi, L.A., Romantsik, O., Marimpietri, D., Pistoia, V., Ghiggeri, G., Frassoni, F., Candiano, G.

Exosomes from human mesenchymal stem cells conduct aerobic metabolism in term and preterm newborn infants. FASEB Journal, 30 (4), 1416-1424. DOI: 10.1096/fj.15-279679.


2017 Panfoli, I.

Cancer exosomes in urine: A promising biomarker source. (2017) Translational Cancer Research, 6,  S1389-S1393. DOI: 10.21037/tcr.2017.10.17.

2017 - Bruschi M, Santucci L, Ravera S, Bartolucci M, Petretto A, Calzia D, Ghiggeri GM, Ramenghi LA, Candiano G, Panfoli I.

Metabolic Signature of Microvesicles from Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells of Preterm and Term Infants. Proteomics Clinical Application; 12(3):e1700082. doi: 10.1002/prca.201700082.


2018 - Bruschi M, Petretto A, Caicci F, Bartolucci M, Calzia D, Santucci L, Manni L, Ramenghi LA, Ghiggeri G, Traverso CE, Candiano G, Panfoli I. 2018

Proteome of Bovine Mitochondria and Rod Outer Segment Disks: Commonalities and Differences. Journal of  Proteome Research17, 918-925. doi: 10.1021/acs.jproteome.7b00741.


2018 - Calzia D, Degan P, Caicci F, Bruschi M, Manni L, Ramenghi LA, Candiano G, Traverso CE, Panfoli I. 

Modulation of the rod outer segment aerobic metabolism diminishes the production of radicals due to light absorption. Free Radic Biol Med. 117, 110-118. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2018.01.029.


2018 - Panfoli I, Candiano G, Malova M, De Angelis L, Cardiello V, Buonocore G,  Ramenghi LA.

Oxidative Stress as a Primary Risk Factor for Brain Damage in Preterm Newborns. Front Pediatr. 6, 369. doi: 10.3389/fped.2018.00369.


2018 - Ravera S, Signorello MG, Bartolucci M, Ferrando S, Manni L, Caicci F, Calzia D, Panfoli I, Morelli A, Leoncini G.

Extramitochondrial energy production in platelets. Biology of the cells. 110, 97-108. doi: 10.1111/boc.201700025.

2018 - Panfoli, I., Santucci, L., Bruschi, M., Petretto, A., Calzia, D., Ramenghi, L.A., Ghiggeri, G., Candiano, G.

Microvesicles as promising biological tools for diagnosis and therapy Expert Review of Proteomics, 15, 801-808. DOI: 10.1080/14789450.2018.1528149.


2020 - Bruschi M, Bartolucci M, Petretto A, Calzia D, Caicci F, Manni L, Traverso CE, Candiano G, Panfoli I.

Differential expression of the five redox complexes in the retinal mitochondria or rod outer segment disks is consistent with their different functionality.

FASEB Bioadv.;2(5):315-324. doi: 10.1096/fba.2019-00093. PMID: 32395704;.


2020 - Panfoli I.

Potential role of endothelial cell surface ectopic redox complexes in COVID-19 disease pathogenesis Clinical Medicine Publish Ahead of Print, June 29, 2020, clinmed.2020-0252; DOI: 10.7861/clinmed.2020-0252



4) Oxidative phosphorylation in myelin and nervous conduction


Having discovered a very intense extramitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in the ROS, we looked for other cellular districts as possible further locations of extramitochondrial OXPHOS: our attention turned to the myelin sheath whose function appeared quite enigmatic. Myelin was found to conduct an OXPHOS less efficient than the ROS but still superior to that of mitochondria. The topic was introduced with the paper:


2009 – Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009 ;41:1581-91. PMID: 19401152

Evidence for aerobic ATP synthesis in isolated myelin vesicles.

Ravera S, Panfoli I, Calzia D, Aluigi MG, Bianchini P, Diaspro A, Mancardi G,

Morelli A.


2011 - Cell Biochem Biophys. ;61:179-87.

Hypothesis of an energetic function for myelin.

Morelli A(1), Ravera S, Panfoli I.


2011 - Expert Rev Proteomics. ;8:231-9.

Proteomics unravels the exportability of mitochondrial respiratory chains.

Panfoli I, Ravera S, Bruschi M, Candiano G, Morelli A.


2011 - Theor Biol Forum.;104:67-74. PMID: 25095598

Exportability of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation machinery into

myelin sheath.

Morelli A, Ravera S, Calzia D, Panfoli I.


2012 - Med Hypotheses. , 78:707-10.

Impairment of heme synthesis in myelin as potential trigger of multiple sclerosis.

Morelli A, Ravera S, Calzia D, Panfoli I.


2013 - J Neurochem ;126:82-92.

Oxydative phosphorylation in sciatic nerve myelin and its impairment in a model

of dysmyelinating peripheral neuropathy.

Ravera S, Nobbio L, Visigalli D, Bartolucci M, Calzia D, Fiorese F, Mancardi

G, Schenone A, Morelli A, Panfoli I.


2013 - J Cereb Blood Flow Metab.  ;33:1838-42.

Hypothesis of lipid-phase-continuity proton transfer for aerobic ATP synthesis.

Morelli AM(1), Ravera S, Calzia D, Panfoli I.

This paper elaborates the classical chemosmotic theory to adapt it to the operative OXPHOS in the myelin.


2013 - Biochimie; 95:1991-8.

Tricarboxylic acid cycle-sustained oxidative phosphorylation in isolated myelin


Ravera S, Bartolucci M, Calzia D, Aluigi MG, Ramoino P, Morelli A, Panfoli I.


2014 - Expert Rev Proteomics;11:345-54.

Myelin proteomics: the past, the unexpected and the future.

Panfoli I, Bruschi M, Santucci L, Calzia D, Ravera S, Petretto A, Candiano G.


2015 – Paripex-Indian Journal of Research; 4: 21-24.

Galactose and Hexose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Support the Myelin Metabolic Role.

Ravera S, Bartolucci M, Calzia D,  Morelli A, Panfoli I.


2015 - Neurochem Res. 40, 2230-41.

Morelli A, Panfoli I. Functional Expression of Electron Transport Chain and FoF 1-ATP Synthase in Optic Nerve Myelin Sheath.

Bartolucci M, Ravera S, Garbarino G, Ramoino P, Ferrando S, Calzia D, Candiani S,


2016 - Mol Neurobiol, 53, 2468–2479.

Support of Nerve Conduction by Respiring Myelin Sheath: Role of Connexons.

Ravera S, Bartolucci M, Adriano E, Garbati P, Ferrando S, Ramoino P, Calzia D,

Morelli A, Balestrino M, Panfoli I.


2016 - Mol Neurobiol. 53:7048-7056.

Evaluation of the Acquisition of the Aerobic Metabolic Capacity by Myelin, during

its Development.

Ravera S, Bartolucci M, Garbati P, Ferrando S, Calzia D, Ramoino P, Balestrino M, Morelli A, Panfoli I.


2017 – Preprint PeerJ – https://doi.org/10.7287/peerj.preprints.3409v1

The Myelin cannot change the basic mechanisms of axonal conduction.

Morelli A, Panfoli I.


2019 - Open Biol; 9:180221. doi: 10.1098/rsob.180221.

An update of the chemiosmotic theory as suggested by possible proton currents

inside the coupling membrane.

Morelli AM, Ravera S, Calzia D, Panfoli I.

This publication takes up the concepts already expressed in 2013 (J Cereb Blood Flow Metab; 33:1838-42 Hypothesis of lipid-phase-continuity proton transfer for aerobic ATP synthesis. Morelli AM, Ravera S, Calzia D, Panfoli I.) with the aim of formulating a theory consistent with extramitochondrial OXPHOS.


2020 - Open Biol.10 (10):200224. doi: 10.1098/rsob.200224.  PMID: 33081639.

The aerobic mitochondrial ATP synthesis from a comprehensive point of view.

Morelli AM, Ravera S, Panfoli I.

Converting chemical energy from nutrients into ATP is the fundamental process supporting the cellular processes. Although the biochemical research on this topic began more than a century ago and has been the goal of many metabolic studies, the canonical paradigms show anomalies. One of these is the preconceived assumption that mitochondria are the exclusive site of aerobic ATP production. It emerges that the mitochondria would be the unique assembly site of the complex molecular machinery which couples the combustion of nutrients to ATP synthesis, that must be shared and ultimately exported to extra-mitochondrial sites where it can express full operativity


2020 - Neurochem Int;141:104883. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint.2020.104883.  PMID: 33075435.

Myelination increases chemical energy support to the axon without modifying the basic physicochemical mechanism of nerve conduction.

Ravera S, Morelli AM, Panfoli I.

The model of myelin playing an electrical insulator role is revised.

In the myelin sheath a active synthesis of aerobic ATP is measured and the synthesided ATP appears delivered to the axon through gap junctions.

Thanks to the supplied ATP, the Na+/K+-pump restores faster the correct ionic distribution on both neurilemmal sides, decreasing the refractory time and speeding  the nerve impulse .

The basic physico-chemical mechanism of nerve conduction does not vary in the transition from unmyelinated to myelinated nerve.


2021 –Journal of Neuroscience Research.   doi: 10.1002/jnr.24865.   PMID: 34085315

Efficient extra-mitochondrial aerobic ATP synthesis in neuronal membrane systems.

Ravera S, Bartolucci M, Calzia D, Morelli AM, Panfoli I.

The nervous system displays high energy consumption, apparently not fulfilled by mitochondria, which are underrepresented therein. The oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) activity, a mitochondrial process that aerobically provides ATP, has also been reported also in the myelin sheath and the rod outer segment (OS) disks. Thus, commonalities and differences between the extra-mitochondrial and mitochondrial aerobic metabolism were evaluated in bovine isolated myelin (IM), rod OS, and mitochondria-enriched fractions (MIT). The subcellular fraction quality and the absence of contamination fractions have been estimated by western blot analysis. Oxygen consumption and ATP

synthesis were stimulated by conventional (pyruvate + malate or succinate) and unconventional (NADH) substrates, observing that oxygen consumption and ATP synthesis by IM and rod OS are more efficient than by MIT, in the presence of both kinds of respiratory substrates. Mitochondria did not utilize NADH as a respiring substrate. When ATP synthesis by either sample was assayed in the presence of 10-100 µM ATP in the assay medium, only in IM and OS it was not inhibited, suggesting that the ATP exportation by the mitochondria is limited by extravesicular ATP concentration. Interestingly, IM and OS but not mitochondria appear able to synthesize ATP at a later time with respect to exposure to respiratory substrates, supporting the hypothesis that the proton gradient produced by the electron transport chain is buffered by membrane phospholipids. The putative transfer mode of the OxPhos molecular machinery from mitochondria to the extra-mitochondrial structures is also discussed, opening new perspectives in the field of neurophysiology.  


2021 – Open Biology - Dec;11(12):210177.doi: 10.1098/rsob.210177. PMID: 34905702.

Myelin sheath and cyanobacterial thylakoids as concentric multilamellar structures with similar bioenergetic 2021properties.

Morelli AM, Chiantore M, Ravera S, Scholkmann F, Panfoli I.

There is a surprisingly high morphological similarity between multilamellar concentric thylakoids in cyanobacteria and the myelin sheath that wraps the nerve axons. Thylakoids are multilamellar structures, which express photosystems I and II, cytochromes and ATP synthase necessary for the light-dependent reaction of photosynthesis. Myelin is a multilamellar structure that surrounds many axons in the nervous system and has long been believed to act simply as an insulator. However, it has been shown that myelin has a trophic role, conveying nutrients to the axons and producing ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. Therefore, it is tempting to presume that both membranous structures, although distant in the evolution tree, share not only a morphological but also a functional similarity, acting in feeding ATP synthesized by the ATP synthase to the centre of the multilamellar structure. Therefore, both molecular structures may represent a convergent evolution of life on Earth to fulfill fundamentally similar functions.


2022 – Morelli AM.

A new way of understanding bioenergetics. Research Features, 142, July 23, DOI: 10.26904/RF-142-2921655847

Extra-mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation that leads to the production of energy, in the form of ATP, has been shown to occur in the rod outer segments in the retina. This supplies energy for the process whereby light is converted to an electrical impulse and carried by the optic nerve to the brain. Professor Alessandro Maria Morelli and Professor Isabella Panfoli, from the University of Genoa, Italy, show that extra-mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation also occurs in the myelin sheath surrounding nerves, and suggest that it is a vital energy supply for the nerve.



2023 -Medical Hypotheses-176;  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2023.111095

Multiple sclerosis, extra-mitochondrial energy production in myelin and transgenerational effects of lead exposure: Possible connections.

Morelli AM, Scholkmann F.

In this article is hypothesizes a connection of lead pollution with the onset of Multiple Sclerosis. The hypothesis arises from the observation that in Sardinia the incidence of Multiple Sclerosis is about 4 times that of the rest of the Italian continent and this figure is correlated with the intense mining activity carried out in Sardinia since the times of the Roman Empire. Lead poisoning compromises the synthesis of the heme group, with consequent degeneration of myelin itself due to impaired extra-mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, a energetic process which is particularly active in myelin to sustain nervous impulse.


2023 - Adv Exp Med Biol ,1438:93-99; doi: 10.1007/978-3-031-42003-0_16. PMID: 37845446

The Significance of Lipids for the Absorption and Release of Oxygen in Biological Organisms

Morelli AM, Scholkmann F.

The hypothesis has been put forward that the lipids contained in the blood of Icefish (which have circulating blood devoid of red blood cells) are the solubilizing and oxygen transporting agents. The theme is placed in a broader context, given that the sebum on the surface of the skin, the cuticle on the surface of the leaves, the surfactant of the pulmonary alveoli and the brain myelin are efficient absorbers of oxygen (except for the leaves which absorb CO2 gaseous and that they release oxygen anyway). All these biological structures contain lipids in high concentrations. In particular, the myelin of the brain is an efficient absorber of oxygen thanks to the lipid material in which it is rich, as specified in the article      thanks to the great surface development that characterizes it. The analogy of myelin with the structure of surfactant is impressive  so much so that surfactant contains defined structures " tubular myelin”, but no one ever thought that the evident structural analogies also reflected functional analogies. Therefore myelin i) thanks to its sponge effect function towards oxygen; ii) thanks to the molecular machinery - contained in myelin - which carries out oxidative phosphorylation with ATP synthesis and oxygen consumption.



5)   Some  research carried out by other laboratories inspired also by the data produced by the Laboratory of Bichemistry - Department of Pharmacy – Genoa


2012 - Chang HY, Huang HC, Huang TC, Yang PC, Wang YC, Juan HF.

Ectopic ATP synthase blockade suppresses lung adenocarcinoma growth by activating the unfolded protein response.

Cancer Res.;72(18):4696-706. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-12-0567. PMID: 22822083


2014 -Bleasel JM, Wong JH, Halliday GM, Kim WS.

Lipid dysfunction and pathogenesis of multiple system atrophy.

Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2:15. doi: 10.1186/2051-5960-2-15. PMID: 24502382.


2015 - Bellesi M.

Sleep and oligodendrocyte functions.

Curr Sleep Med Rep.1(1):20-26. doi: 10.1007/s40675-014-0008-2. PMID: 25821717


2015 - Gat-Viks I, Geiger T, Barbi M, Raini G, Elroy-Stein O.

Proteomics-level analysis of myelin formation and regeneration in a mouse model

for Vanishing White Matter disease.

J Neurochem. 134(3):513-26. doi: 10.1111/jnc.13142. Epub 2015 May 14. PMID: 25920008


2018 - Bianchi G, Ravera S, Traverso C, Amaro A, Piaggio F, Emionite L, Bachetti T, Pfeffer U, Raffaghello L.

Curcumin induces a fatal energetic impairment in tumor cells in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting ATP-synthase activity.

Carcinogenesis.;39(9):1141-1150. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgy076. PMID: 29860383


2018 - Ravera S, Bonifacino T, Bartolucci M, Milanese M, Gallia E, Provenzano F, Cortese K, Panfoli I, Bonanno G.

Characterization of the Mitochondrial Aerobic Metabolism in the Pre- and Perisynaptic Districts of the SOD1G93A Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Mol Neurobiol.  55(12):9220-9233. doi: 10.1007/s12035-018-1059-z. Epub 2018 Apr 14. PMID: 29656361.


2020 - Marini C, Cossu V, Bonifacino T, Bauckneht M, Torazza C, Bruno S, Castellani P, Ravera S, Milanese M, Venturi C, Carlone S, Piccioli P, Emionite L, Morbelli S, Orengo AM, Donegani MI, Miceli A, Raffa S, Marra S, Signori A, Cortese K, Grillo F, Fiocca R, Bonanno G, Sambuceti G.

Mechanisms underlying the predictive power of high skeletal muscle uptake of FDG in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

 EJNMMI Res.;10(1):76. doi: 10.1186/s13550-020-00666-6. PMID: 32638178;.


2020 - Burlando B, Milanese M, Giordano G, Bonifacino T, Ravera S, Blanchini F, Bonanno G.

A multistationary loop model of ALS unveils critical molecular interactions involving mitochondria and glucose metabolism.

PLoS One. 2020 Dec 17;15(12):e0244234. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0244234. PMID: 33332476; PMCID: PMC7746301.


2020 - Via CY, Xu JK, Pan CH, Lian WW, Yan Y, Ma BZ, He J, Zhang WK.

Connexins in oligodendrocytes and astrocytes: Possible factors for demyelination in multiple sclerosis.

Neurochem Int. 2020; 136:104731. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint.2020.104731. PMID: 32201280


2021 - Sambuceti G, Cossu V, Bauckneht M, Morbelli S, Orengo A, Carta S, Ravera S, Bruno S, Marini C.

18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) uptake. What are we looking at?

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2021 May;48(5):1278-1286. doi: 10.1007/s00259-021-05368-2. PMID: 33864142.


2021 - Marini C, Cossu V, Kumar M, Milanese M, Cortese K, Bruno S, Bellese G, Carta S, Zerbo RA, Torazza C, Bauckneht M, Venturi C, Raffa S, Orengo AM, Donegani MI, Chiola S, Ravera S, Castellani P, Morbelli S, Sambuceti G, Bonanno G.

The Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum in the Differential Endurance against Redox Stress in Cortical and Spinal Astrocytes from the Newborn SOD1G93A Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Antioxidants (Basel). 10(9):1392. doi: 10.3390/antiox10091392. PMID: 34573024;.


2021 - Martins-de-Souza D, Guest PC, Reis-de-Oliveira G, Schmitt A, Falkai P, Turck CW. An overview of the human brain myelin proteome and differences associated with schizophrenia.

World J Biol Psychiatry. Apr;22(4):271-287. doi: 10.1080/15622975.2020.1789217. Epub 2020 Jul 21. PMID: 32602824.


2022 - Križančić Bombek L, Čater M.

Skeletal Muscle Uncoupling Proteins in Mice Models of Obesity.

Metabolites.;12(3):259. doi: 10.3390/metabo12030259. PMID: 35323702.


2022 - -Ferrero ME.

Neuron Protection by EDTA May Explain the Successful Outcomes of Toxic Metal Chelation Therapy in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Biomedicines;10(10):2476. doi: 10.3390/biomedicines10102476. PMID: 36289738.


2022 – Ley Ngardigal S, Bertolin G.

Approaches to monitor ATP levels in living cells: where do we stand?

FEBS J.289(24):7940-7969. doi: 10.1111/febs.16169. Epub 2021 Sep 3. PMID: 34437768



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